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Female

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Failure to ovulate and hence no progesterone production and increased LH levels. Repeated failure to ovulate results in progesterone deficiency and associated menstrual irregularities and associated symptoms.

Also known as PCOS, Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD), Functional Ovarian Hyperandrogenism, Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, Ovarian Hyperthecosis, Sclerocystic Ovary Syndrome.

About the Condition

Between 5-10% of reproductive women have PCOS. Up to 25% of reproductive women have polycystic ovaries without having PCOS.

  • Endocrine condition  associated with an excess of androgen production, initially by the ovary and then secondarily by the adrenal gland.
  • Strong genetic component together with lifestyle and environmental factors.
  • A concomitant increase in oestrogen production giving rise to endometrial hyperplasia and an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma.
  • The increase in steroid production disrupts the menstrual cycle and this can result in either amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhea together with infertility.
  • Associated with varying degrees of insulin resistance and the development of type II diabetes.
  • Obesity is common.

Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome fail to ovulate and have very few periods in a year. Because of this disruption to the normal hormonal cycle Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome sufferers generally develop higher levels of the hormone testosterone due to increase luteinizing hormone (LH) being released from the pituitary gland in the brain.

With time, this has the effect on the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome sufferer of weight gain, acne and oily skin, and increased facial and body hair. Associated with these physical changes the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin and as a result the normal process of sugar metabolism is disrupted.

There are numerous synthetic hormonal and non hormonal options to treatment Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome which involve management of symptoms rather than addressing a significant underlying cause – progesterone deficiency.

S.testosterone (H), S.LH:FSH ratio (H), U.FSH (N), S.prolactin (H), S.oestrogen (N or L), S.DHEA-S (H), S.androstenedione (H), U.17-ketosteroids (H), glucose tolerance test (AB), S.insulin (H) , S. Progesterone (ideally taken at day 21 if cycling). Ovarian ultrasound imaging.

Genetically determined disease associated with an absence of progesterone production and excess of androgen production.

Next page: Symptoms of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

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Downloadable Resources

Symptoms of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

  • Anovulation (failure to ovulate)
  • Menstrual disturbances (either lack of mestrual periods or disrupted menstrual cycles)
  • Obesity
  • Acne, oily skin
  • Poor self-esteem, negative body image
  • Anxiety, depression
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Infertility
  • Oligomenorrhea
  • Amenorrhoea
  • Hirsutism (excessive hair growth) or male hair-pattern distribution
  • Endometrial hyperplasia

Progression

Untreated may develop into endometrial carcinoma.

Next page: Causes of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

ProFeme® 10

ProFeme 10 progesterone cream packaging

For women

ProFeme® 10% Progesterone Cream is specifically designed for use in women with declined or lowered progesterone levels.

Downloadable Resources

Causes of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Low levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are produced so a woman's eggs are underdeveloped and she will fail to ovulate. Constantly high levels of lutenizing hormone (LH) and high levels of male androgens are present too.

The eggs cannot burst free from the ovary in women with PCOS. Instead, they form painful, liquid-filled sacs called cysts.

Diagnosis

  • Made from the history and the clinical examination, as well as the finding of tonically elevated levels of LH in serum, and often a raised level of testosterone in serum.
  • The serum levels of sex hormone binding globulin are reduced, thus elevating the free androgen index (FAI).
  • A mild elevation of the serum prolactin may also be present.
  • An ultrasound of the pelvis may show the so called ‘bracelet pattern’ of follicles around the periphery of the ovary.
  • A diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome is generally made when at least two out of three of the following symptoms are met:
    • Polycystic ovaries are present on ultrasound
    • High levels of male hormones are in the blood (hyperandrogenism), or symptoms suggesting an excess of male hormones are present (e.g. excessive hair growth, acne etc.)
    • Menstrual dysfunction - period irregularity, lack of a period or lack of ovulation

Secondary Condition: Untreated PCOS may lead to Insulin resistance

Next page: Treatment/management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

ProFeme® 10

ProFeme 10 progesterone cream packaging

For women

ProFeme® 10% Progesterone Cream is specifically designed for use in women with declined or lowered progesterone levels.

Downloadable Resources

Treatment/Management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

There are numerous synthetic hormonal and non hormonal options to treatment PCOS which involve management of symptoms rather than addressing a significant underlying cause – progesterone deficiency.

Sadly medical researchers have for decades failed to study in detail the multitude of beneficial effects of natural progesterone. Natural progesterone cream is the only patient - friendly form of progesterone that has stood the test of time as an effective and reliable mode of administration for the management of progesterone deficiency conditions.

Next page: Further information about Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

ProFeme® 10

ProFeme 10 progesterone cream packaging

For women

ProFeme® 10% Progesterone Cream is specifically designed for use in women with declined or lowered progesterone levels.

Downloadable Resources

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Topics discussed in the Understanding Ovulation and Anovulation booklet include:

  • What is ovulation?
  • What is anovulation?
  • What is a normal menstrual cycle?
  • What causes anovulation?
  • Why is anovulation a problem?
  • Ovulatory changes with age
  • Perimenopause (mid 30's onwards)
  • Menopause
  • More serious medical conditions
  • What is the role of progesterone in humans?

Progesterone for Women FAQ's

ProFeme® 10

ProFeme 10 progesterone cream packaging

For women

ProFeme® 10% Progesterone Cream is specifically designed for use in women with declined or lowered progesterone levels.

Downloadable Resources

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